Mento music is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. Mento typically features acoustic instruments, such as acoustic guitar, banjo, hand drums, and the rhumba box — a large mbria in the shape of a box that can be sat on while played. The rhumba box carries the bass part of the music. Mento music is often confused with calypso, a musical form from Trinidad and Tobago. Although the two share many similarities, they are separate and distinct musical forms. In part, the differences stem from the differing colonial histories of the two West Indes Islands, as Jamaican music lacks the Spanish influences found in other Caribbean musical styles. Mento music uses topical lyrics with a humorous slant, commenting on poverty and other social issues. Sexual innuendos are also common. Mento was strongly influenced by calypso, the musical traditions of the Kumina religion and Cuban Music. During the mid-20th century, mento was conflated with calypso, and mento music was frequently referred to as calypso,kalypso and mento calypso; mento singers frequently used calypso songs and technique. Mento music draws on musical traditions brought over by African slaves. The influence of European music is also strong, as slaves who could play musical instruments were often required to play music for their masters. They subsequently incorporated some elements of these traditions into their own folk music. The lyrics of mento songs often deal with aspects of everyday life in a light-hearted and humorous way. Many comment on poverty, poor housing and other social issues. Thinly veiled sexual references and innuendo are also common themes. Although the treatment of such subjects in mento is comparatively innocent, their appearance has sometimes been seen as a precursor of the slacknessfound in modern dancehall. Major 1950s mento recording artists include Louise Bennett, Count Lasher, Harold Richardson, Lord Flea, Lord Fly, Alerth Bedasse with Chin’s Calypso Sextet, Laurel Aitken, Denzil Laing, Lord Composer, Lord Lebby, Lord Power, Hubert Porter, and New Yorker of Jamaican origin Harry Belafante, whose massive hit records in 1956-1958, including “Day-O (The Banana Boat Song)” and “Jamaica Farewell” were really mento songs sold as calypso. Previously recorded Jamaican versions of many Belafonte’s classic “calypso” hits can be heard on the Jamaica – Mento 1951-1958 CD released in 2010. The golden age of mento was the 1950s, as records pressed by Stanley Motta, Ivan Chin, Ken Khouri and others brought the music to a new audience. In the 1960s it was overshadowed by Ska and Reggae, but it is still played in Jamaica, especially in areas frequented by tourists. Loyd Bradley, reggae historian and author of seminal reggae book Bass Culture said that he felt Lee “Scratch” Perry’s 1976 album ‘Super Ape’ contained some of the purest mento influences he knew . It was repopularized by the Jolly Boys in the late 1980s and early 1990s with the release of four recordings on First Warning Records/Rykodisc and a tour that included the United State. Stanley Bedford and Gilzene and the Blue Light Mento Band also revived rural mento in the 2000s.